Orange Data Mining: An Open Source Software for Data Science
After you download the crx file for OrangeMonkey 1.0.4, open Chrome's extensions page (chrome://extensions/ or find by Chrome menu icon > More tools > Extensions), and then drag-and-drop the *.crx file to the extensions page to install it.
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Local YouTube Downloader is a tool that does exactly what it says on the tin, it lets you download YouTube videos locally to your device. However, this extension isn't downloadable through the Chrome Web Store, you have to install it through Tampermonkey.
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We create resources and experiences that promote the alignment of the church and the home.Two combined influences make a greater impact than just two influences. When the light of the church (yellow) combines with the heart of the home (red) you get a stronger, more vibrant impact in the life of a kid (orange).
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Although the monkey orange (Strychnos spp.) tree fruit is widely distributed in Southern Africa and particularly in Zimbabwe, it is underutilized and little attention has been given to its potential commercialisation due to limited knowledge and information. Most of the fruits and their products are wasted because of limited harvest time, process control and storage conditions, leading to variability in shelf life and sensory quality, thereby impacting nutritional quality. Traditional processing techniques make insufficient use of this food resource within rural communities. This study aimed at identifying the existing bottlenecks by means of a survey among 102 smallholder farming respondents in the wet and dry regions of Zimbabwe. Results revealed that S. cocculoides and S. spinosa were used by 48% of respondents as a functional ingredient in porridge, by 25% in fermented mahewu drink and by 15% of respondents as a non-alcoholic juice. The fruits of S. innocua and S. madagascariensis are preferably processed into dried products. Taste, flavour and colour were the important quality characteristics for all processed products, and constraints to be solved are seed-flesh separation, long processing times, separation of juice and pulp during storage as well as pulp viscosity. Respondents reported monkey orange products to have health benefits for children and immune-compromised people, who, on regular consumption, have reportedly increased weight and resistance to disease. The positive perception about the processed products of Strychnos spp. offer a good opportunity to improve nutrition security by capitalizing on these not-yet-fully-exploited resources, but technological solutions to improve sensory quality and shelf life must be developed.
Thus, our present study aimed to assess and document specific traditional processing techniques and their bottlenecks in identified rural communities and regions in Zimbabwe with the objective of determining which food technological improvements would support the role of indigenous monkey orange fruits as a way to improve nutrition security. Strychnos spp. has the potential to generate income for actors in the value chain within local and regional markets, as in the case of baobab fruit and other African indigenous fruits that reportedly reduce poverty by 33% during the critical period of the year (Chadare et al. 2008; Mithöfer and Waibel 2003). Aspects explored in our study include processed products, processing steps, constraints and consumption patterns of the fresh fruits and their products. The study also provides information on local food uses of Strychnos species, which is important for further research on the implications of processing and storage for nutritional health benefits and sensory quality.
Data were obtained during field visits using questionnaires administered through face-to-face interviews, in detailed focus group discussions and by observations during the monkey orange season from September through December 2014. Observations during the harvesting and processing of monkey oranges were made as follow-ups to the information obtained from the respondents. The interviews were either with individuals or in group discussions in the local Shona and Ndebele languages (with the assistance of local translators), which were well understood by all respondents, so as to obtain in-depth information. Detailed discussions were used to generate data from groups of between 10 and 15 participants in selected communities. A relevant leader of the community, who was believed to have more experience and in-depth knowledge of the fruit and area, was identified for each focus group. The focus group dynamics facilitated the generation of forgotten information. Ages of respondents ranged from 20 to above 70 years. In each locality, information was gathered by answering questions based on the following parameters: (1) fruit harvesting and gathering, (2) processing methods, (3) consumption patterns, (4) storage practices of fruit and fruit products, and (5) processing and storage constraints. Specific questions were developed for each actor and were subdivided as follows:
For all species, major attributes for fruit maturity and harvesting were colour (89% of respondents), liquefaction (72%) and taste (49%). Fruit colour changes from green to bright yellow or orange (colour intensity depending on species) at the onset of ripening. Specifically, for S. cocculoides and S. spinosa liquefaction is a common maturity indicator used by respondents, identified by holding the fruit to the ear and shaking to listen for the sound of sloshing pulp and loose seeds. The best tasting fruits are known from past experience and respondents know the location of the trees that bear the most delicious fruits. These results concur with those of Akinnifesi et al. (2007), where they concluded that traditionally in Southern Africa the harvesting of indigenous fruits depends largely on past knowledge and observations within the community.
Of the four monkey orange species, S. cocculoides was the only species that was picked unripe and stored for ripening; the other three species were only picked when ripe. In total, from all the regions surveyed for S. cocculoides, 89% percent of the respondents picked fallen ripe fruits, and 70% picked mature fruits from the tree. Twenty seven percent of respondents picked light green mature fruit for ripening during storage. According to respondents, the degree of maturity was not a constraint as through experience they know the ideal stage of maturity that allows the fruit to ripen in storage. Because of their hard shell and acidic nature with a pH of around 3.5 (Saka et al. 2007), Strychnos spp. can tolerate relatively high temperatures and long storage times before deteriorating in quality. Ripening could be either accelerated or reduced by different storage methods. Methods used to accelerate ripening are the mimicking of dark, air tight conditions, such as by burying fruits underground in sand, in sacks with dry hay, dry chicken manure, mealie meal or fine wood ash. Thus, the fruits are kept in the buried environments in order to control the atmospheric conditions that allow the concentration of the ethylene plant hormone that consequently hastens the ripening period, signifying the climacteric nature of the fruit (Barry and Giovannoni 2007; Sitrit et al. 2003). Respondents indicated the storage treatment and estimated the storage time of the fruit based on their experience. They indicated that picking of mature unripe fruits for storage in burial places also reduces competition from other fruit collectors, especially of a well-known, sweet tasting variety, which is in line with findings of Motlhanka et al. (2008) and Rampedi and Olivier (2013). Unripe mature fruits can be stored in this manner for more than two months (according to 18% of the respondents). To delay ripening, mature fruits are kept cool by storing them in ventilated grain sacks, under (or in) granaries and in closed clay pots. Ripe fruits can be stored for one month (59% of the respondents), two months (9% of respondents) and more than two months (1% of respondents), before they rot. Thirty percent of respondents said they immediately consumed or processed the fruit and did not store the fruit at any stage of collection. The constraints identified by the respondents were a shortage of fruits of the sweet tasting variety, and seasonality, where respondents desired a longer storage time and extended availability of fruits throughout the year.
Solar drying of S. cocculoides and S. spinosa was commonly done in Lower Gwelo (68%) district. During hot summer days, monkey orange flesh is either spread over a flat surface with maximum heat absorbance or in traditionally-made solar driers covered with transparent or black plastic. The solar dryers use convective air for heat that subsequently dries the product. Drying takes between five days and two weeks, depending on prevailing weather conditions and whether the desired moisture content is reached. The determination of the moisture content is subjective, and physical tests, such as stickiness of the product, are reported often to be used to evaluate if the product is dry enough. When dried sufficiently, the product is stored at room temperature in perforated sacks. The dried product is the starting material to prepare sweet and snack products or for inclusion as an ingredient in different preparations such as juice, porridge or beverages.